## Sunday, April 25, 2010

### Hydrolab calibration videos

Hydrolab Surveyor - Basic Maintenance

Calibration of pH Sensor

Calibration of Self-cleaning turbidity sensor

Calibration of Standard turbidity sensor

Calibration of conductivity sensor

Calibration of Depth sensor

Calibration of LDO sensor

Calibration of ORP sensor

## Thursday, February 25, 2010

### Tensile testing of flexible plasticyne products to ASTM D638

The following article demonstrates the diversity of the Universal testing machines manufactured by Tinius Olsen.

Recently we were approached by a leading Plastics packing company - RAK Petropack in Ras Al Khaimah, UAE to provide a testing solution for their plastics lab.

We supplied them with a complete testing solution as detailed below:
1. Tensile testing for flexible plastic sheets from 100 to 150 microns thick,
2. 90 degree Peel Testing with moving Base Sledge,
3. Coefficient of friction testing to ASTM D1894/ BS 2782 Part 8
4. Falling dart Impact Test,
5. Haze and Gloss measurement
6. Other instruments such as ovens, weighing scales and thermometers.

The following video is a demonstration of a live sample being tested:

For more details contact:

Saifullah Mohammed,
Sales Engineer
Sigma Enterprises LLC
Instrumentation division
Tel - +9714 8851828
Fax - +9714 8851628
Mobile - +97150 4552910
Email - saifullah_mohammed@sep.ae

### Dumbbell Press & Cutters

Product: Dumbbell Press & Cutter
Use: Specimen cutting

During Materials Testing, how we prepare & cut the specimen plays a vital role in attaining accurate results. Different standards specify different dimensions for the sample cutting such as ASTM, ISO, BS, DIN, GOST etc,. Each standard  has various types for eg. TYPE I, TYPE 3, TYPE 1B etc

Tinius Olsen offers a wide range of Press & Cutters to meet  sample preparation requirements as per international standards.

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Tinius Olsen hand operated cutting presses are specifically designed for the 'pressing out' of test specimens from sheet materials.

All presses are bench mounted and can accept a variety of different die cutters.

Various capacities are available ranging from 7.5KN, 15KN, 25KN

Tinius Olsen cutters are used to create accurate samples that help assure accurate, repeatable test results.

All die cutters are manufactured from high carbon steel, specifically hardened for long life.

Any shape available for specimens in accordance with standards such as ASTM D412, ASTM D638, ISO 527 (All Types) &  various ASTM, BS ISO, DIN, GOST, ISO.

Tinius Olsen cutting press are mainly used by commercial labs and manufacturers in UAE.

The following users are happily using Tinius Olsen cutters for sample preparation:

- Material Lab, Exova, Al Hoty Stanger, Specialty Chemicals, National Petroleum to name a few.

For more details contact:

Saifullah Mohammed,
Sales Engineer
Sigma Enterprises LLC
Instrumentation division
Tel - +9714 8851828
Fax - +9714 8851628
Mobile - +97150 4552910
Email - saifullah_mohammed@sep.ae

## Monday, February 22, 2010

### Tinius Olsen launches new video extensometer range

A video extensometer is a device that is capable of performing stress/strain measurements of certain materials, by capturing continuous images of the specimen during test, using a frame grabber or a digital video camera attached to a PC.

Just a month ago, Tinius Olsen launched its new range of video extensometers leveraging the power of the latest technology available in the market. Click here to learn more.

True to Tinius Olsen’s mantra as a world leader in the supply of materials testing systems, the Tinius Olsen video extensometer leaps ahead of competitive offerings from Germany, France and the US with the latest technology, ease of use and offers the following benefits;
• The sub-micron resolution (certified to ISO 19513 Class 0.5 and ASTM E83 Class B1 for metals testing) of these extensometers offers the user the same functionality of contact type extensometers with the added benefits of video extensometry.
• The high-tech testing software enables the user to measure strain on low and high elongation raw material test specimens or components using the same extensometer which translates in to additional savings and higher productivity in the lab.
• The user can select a wide range of gauge lengths from as little as 1mm upto 800 mm. This enables the user to cover a variety of international test methods that specify different gauge lengths, and which would not be possible in contact type extensometers.
• The extensometer can be used with a temperature chambers and or liquid baths to test a variety of applications.
• Tinius Olsen can supply the extensometer to fit and work with non Tinius Olsen systems e.g. Instron, Zwick, Shimandzu.
• The video strain data can be re run post test with new gauge marks on the same specimen
• Busy labs with multiple materials testing machines can use a single Tinius Olsen video extensometer across multiple tensile testing machines.

• Does the Tinius Olsen video extensometer need sophisticated lighting ?
• No, our latest technology compensates for lighting conditions in average labs
• Does it require exacting specimen marking ?
• No, the software supplied with the extensometer does all the work in identifying the changing patterns on image of the sample thereby giving highly accurate strain data.
• Is the video extensometer available at a price QA\QC labs testing metals, plastics, composites, elastomers and more can afford in these tough economic times?
• Yes, our pricing is very modular and competitive allowing the user to pick and choose a system that is exactly suited to their technical and commercial needs.
• How long does it take to set the extensometer up ?
• Tinius Olsen sales team can walk into your lab and set the unit up on any tensile testing machine and demonstrate in 30 minutes. Once set up, each test is just 4 mouse clicks. It literally takes seconds to starting using our user-friendly technology.

Amit Mitbawkar
Team Leader - Industrial Materials Testing
SIGMA ENTERPRISES LLC
Engineering Products Division
PO Box - 96241,
Dubai, UAE
Tel - +971 4 8851828
Fax - +971 4 8851628
Mobile - +971 50 4450907
Email – amit_mitbawkar@sep.ae
Website - www.sigma-epd.com

## Monday, February 15, 2010

### Small Scale Scoop Sampling and Impression Creep Testing of ½CrMoV Steam Pipework

Many power stations across the world historically use steam pipework in their plants. The pipes are mostly made from ½CrMoV steel. Although this type of steel is suited for the application, it has a tendency to age just like all other metals and is also susceptible to fatigue failure from the high pressures and extremely high operational temperatures.

Based on plant experience, it has been shown that the risk of CrMoV bend failure being catastrophic is greater than failures on welds and the pipes most susceptible to failure are the ones closest to the boilers which have to withstand temperatures of around 600 ˚C.

These steam pipe failures obviously have huge cost implications and more importantly major safety implications. A power plant shutdown due to any type of failure can result in millions of dollars in losses to the operating company and loss of trained personnel as well, not to mention the intangible losses to industries and homes depending on receiving power from these plants 24x7.

Strain measurement, metallurgical replication, dimensional measurements, hardness testing, and chemical testing are some of the current test methods used in power plants across the world, but do not have the ability to predict the remaining life of the pipes being tested or when to change these pipes.

Small scoop sampling and Impression creep testing is an viable alternative and is gaining global recognition because it supports finite analysis better than the traditional test methods and has more repeatability. The test results also are able to classify which pipes are in good condition and which are in critical condition.

The sampling for the test is done by a special machine developed specifically for this application. The machine samples a scoop from existing pipework without damaging it, and while the plant is operational. This is a offers an obvious benefit to maintenance staff who want to keep plant shutdowns to a minimum.

The Impression creep test or Indentation test is used to determine the level of material fatigue specifically used in the evaluation of in service power station steam pipes and pipe work fittings. The more worn and fatigued a metal the greater the indentation under an applied constant force defined as a compressive extension in mm.

This test has been refined and implemented for the UK Power generating company NPower (part of the EU RWE power generating group). Click here to learn more about RWE and NPower, by Bristol University UK and Tinius Olsen.

Impression creep test equipment comprises of; data capture, graphing and load hold control software, a furnace, H25K-S compression testing machine, dual LVDT averaging extensometer 0.1µm resolution accuracy ± 0.5% of displayed value and alignment fitting.

To date (Feb, 2010) Tinius Olsen has supplied four systems;
1. Nottingham University, UK who are commissioned to support NPower in metal fatigue analysis,
2. Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) - 2 machines in their North Carolina USA facility (EPRI are a US testing/engineering consultancy institute supporting US Power generators and ASTM re metal fatigue of steam power station pipe work), and
3. Strathclyde University, Scotland who provide commercial testing to the Scottish power industry.

Amit Mitbawkar
Team Leader - Industrial Materials Testing
SIGMA ENTERPRISES LLC
Engineering Products Division
PO Box - 96241,
Dubai, UAE
Tel - +971 4 8851828
Fax - +971 4 8851628
Mobile - +971 50 4450907
Email – amit_mitbawkar@sep.ae
Website - www.sigma-epd.com

## Thursday, February 11, 2010

### Modulus of Elasticity

Modulus of elasticity. Rate of change of strain as a function of stress. The slope of the straight line portion of a stress-strain diagram. Tangent modulus of elasticity is the slope of the stress-strain diagram at any point. Secant modulus of elasticity is stress divided by strain at any given value of stress or strain. It also is called stress strain ratio. Tangent and secant modulus of elasticity are equal up to the proportional limit of a material.

Depending on the type of loading represented by the stress-strain diagram, modulus of elasticity may be reported as compressive modulus of elasticity (or modulus of elasticity in compression), flexural modulus of elasticity (or modulus of elasticity in flexure), shear modulus of elasticity (or modulus of elasticity in shear), tensile modulus of elasticity (or modulus of elasticity in tension) or torsional modulus of elasticity (or modulus of elasticity in torsion). Modulus of elasticity may be determined by dynamic mechanical testing where it can be derived from complex modulus.

Modulus used alone generally refers to tensile modulus of elasticity. Shear modulus is almost always equal to torsional modulus and both are called modulus of rigidity. Moduli of elasticity in tension and compression are approximately equal and are known as Young's modulus. Modulus of rigidity is related to Young's modulus by the equation: E = 2G (1 + r) where E is Young's modulus (psi), G is modulus of rigidity (psi) and r is Poisson's ratio. Modulus of elasticity also is called elastic modulus and coefficient of elasticity.

The elastic modulus of an object is defined as the slope of its stress-strain curve in the elastic deformation region:

where λ (lambda) is the elastic modulus; stress is the force causing the deformation divided by the area to which the force is applied; and strain is the ratio of the change caused by the stress to the original state of the object. If stress is measured in pascals, since strain is a unitless ratio, then the units of λ are pascals as well. An alternative definition is that the elastic modulus is the stress required to cause a sample of the material to double in length. This is not realistic for most materials because the value is far greater than the yield stress of the material or the point where elongation becomes nonlinear, but some may find this definition more intuitive.
Specifying how stress and strain are to be measured, including directions, allows for many types of elastic moduli to be defined. The three primary ones are:
• Young's modulus (E) describes tensile elasticity, or the tendency of an object to deform along an axis when opposing forces are applied along that axis; it is defined as the ratio of tensile stress to tensile strain. It is often referred to simply as the elastic modulus.
• The shear modulus or modulus of rigidity (G or $\mu \,$) describes an object's tendency to shear (the deformation of shape at constant volume) when acted upon by opposing forces; it is defined as shear stress over shear strain. The shear modulus is part of the derivation of viscosity.
• The bulk modulus (K) describes volumetric elasticity, or the tendency of an object to deform in all directions when uniformly loaded in all directions; it is defined as volumetric stress over volumetric strain, and is the inverse of compressibility. The bulk modulus is an extension of Young's modulus to three dimensions.
References -

Tinius Olsen Knowledge Centre - http://tiniusolsen.com/resource-center/mechanical-properties-m.html

Amit Mitbawkar
Team Leader - Industrial Materials Testing
SIGMA ENTERPRISES LLC
Engineering Products Division
PO Box - 96241,
Dubai, UAE
Tel - +971 4 8851828
Fax - +971 4 8851628
Mobile - +971 50 4450907
Email – amit_mitbawkar@sep.ae
Website - www.sigma-epd.com

## Monday, September 7, 2009

### Plastic container testing as per ISO 13949

Another satisfied user of Tinius Olsen machines !!!

Siddco Plastics industries FZE are manufacturers of plastic
products based in Hamriya free zone.

Recently we installed a 10KN capacity Tinius Olsen Universal testing machine (UTM) for measuring Compressive strength of plastics containers.

For this application, Tinius Olsen designed special platens of 400 mm X 400 mm square platens to test containers up to 25 ltrs in capacity.

Siddco Plastics products:
Plastic containers of different sizes such as 1 ltr, 4 ltr, 5 ltr, 20 ltr & 25 ltr as per ISO 13949.

Mr. Sajid Ali Behrani, Plant Manager, Siddco Plastics, appreciated the application training and after-sales training provided by Sigma Staff and the user friendly QMAT software supplied with the machine.

He like the fact that QMAT included over 1300 test routines as per ASTM, BS, DIN, ISO etc and also it allows users to customize test routines as per their requirements.

Mr. Sajid mentioned that the Statistical Process Control (SPC) feature in QMAT is very useful for his production Engineers to ensure that the quality of materials during and after production remains consistent over a long-term period.

He also added that the test reporting feature in QMAT allows them to have different custom report templates for internal testing as well as for different customers. A sample report is shown alongside.

For more details contact:

Saifullah Mohammed,
Sales Engineer
Sigma Enterprises LLC
Instrumentation division
Tel - +9714 8851828
Fax - +9714 8851628
Mobile - +97150 4552910
Email - saifullah_mohammed@sep.ae

## Wednesday, September 2, 2009

### Plastics Testing in the U. A. E

Plastics in general are finding applications as replacements for metals and timber in a wide variety of industries.

The reasons for this are numerous and range from insulation properties, colour capabilities, molding capabilities to availability and cost.

As such, the testing of different plastics combinations has been, and indeed still is, been subject to rigorous control.

Today greater emphasis is being placed on the structural use of plastics and so there is an increased awareness of the need to test. Compounders, as well as processors require more stringent control of quality of both materials and processes to meet customer requirements.

This is especially true of critical component parts in the automotive,
medical, aerospace and appliance industries. Some of the various tests possible on Tinius Olsen machines are:
Tensile Rigid Plastics
• ENISO 527,
• ASTM D638,
• BS6319, 2782,
• DIN 53455

Compression Rigid Plastics –
• ISO 604
• ASTM D695

Flexure Rigid Plastics –
• ENISO 178
• ASTM D790
• BS 782, 2782
• DIN 53452

Melt flow index of polymers –

• ASTM D1238

Amit Mitbawkar

Team Leader - Industrial Materials Testing

SIGMA ENTERPRISES LLC
Engineering Products Division
PO Box - 96241,
Dubai, UAE
Tel - +971 4 8851828
Fax - +971 4 8851628
Mobile - +971 50 4450907
Email – amit_mitbawkar@sep.ae
Website - www.sigma-epd.com